John K. Hilliard - Audio Magazine - March 1977
Many attempts were made before the year 1928 to provide talking motion
pictures for general theater use. The inability to provide recording and
reproducing equipment on a practical commercial scale resulted from limitations
in microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, disc and film techniques, and
the lack of general research needed to provide tools for their commercial
Col. Nathan Levinson, the Pacific Coast representative of the Western
Electric Company for broadcast and public address systems, rented a public
address system to Universal Studios used in the production of "The
Hunchback of Notre Dame" and by supplying this equipment, he became
acquainted with motion picture executives. Levinson was a friend of Ralph
Bown, in charge of radio facilities for the Western Electric Company, who
told Levinson that Western Electric had experimental talking motion picture
equipment ready for a demonstration.
Early in 1926, Levinson talked with MGM, Goldwyn, and others to determine
their interest in seeing a demonstration. Sam Warner of Warner Brothers
was the only one technically interested in this new devopment. His brother
was opposed as were other studio executives who believed movies with sound
would ruin their business. Sam Warner sneaked Col. Levinson into the Warner
lot by covering him up in a blanket as they passed the guard gate. After
several meetings at Warner Studios, the Warners agreed to witness a demonstration
at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in the early part of 1926.
The Warner brothers were so enthusiastic over the preliminary tests
that they arranged for full scale tests using their own cameramen, artists,
and technicians in cooperation with the Bell Laboratories staff. After
several tests, the Warner Brothers were convinced that a corporation should
be organized to produce and market sound motion pictures and equipment.
A short subject with Bryan Foy was then made in the Manhattan Opera House
in New York City. George Groves was the mixer, and he relates that many
times recording was stopped due to subway noise. The first theater sound
equipment was transported and installed with armed guards because of the
mistaken fear by producers and exhibitors that sound was not compatible
with motion pictures, and equipment sabotage was possible.
In April of 1926, the Vitaphone Corp. was organized with "Sam"
L.Warner as president, and the first major Vitaphone sound picture was
"Don Juan" released in August, 1926, in which music from the
New York Philharmonic was featured. Plans for production in Hollywood were
immediately started, and sound stages were built using the recommendations
of the best acoustical experts, "The Jazz Singer" with Al Jolsen
was placed in production in April of 1927 and exhibited in New York City
on October 6, 1927. It was so successful that almost every motion picture
producer was convinced sound motion pictures were here on a real basis.
The Vitaphone equipment consisted of a synchronized 33 1/3 rpm, 16 inch
disc, a turntable geared to the projector using a Western Electric 4-A
pickup, and their amplifiers and loudspeakers.
At this point, it is necessary to review the work of several individuals
who were largely responsible for the ability of Western Electric to design,
manufacture, and provide the necessary hardware needed for this important
step. Edward C. Wente came to the company in 1914, and in 1917 he designed
the forerunner of the famous Western 394-W condenser microphone which was
produced commercially in 1926. This microphone provided the necessary sensitivity
and frequency range to adequately record speech and music with excellent
quality. Wente and Thuras also designed a dynamic type driver, the Western
Electric 555-W receiver which, when coupled with a horn consisting of a
one inch throat and a 40 square foot mouth area, was capable of a range
of 100 to 5000 cps and with an average midrange efficiency of 25 per cent.
With five watts input, it could create more than one watt of acoustic power.
By using multiple driver units and several horns, it was then possible
to fill the larger theaters, (3000 to 5000 seats) with ample sound power
to adequately reproduce speech, sound effects, and music! This efficiency
of 25 per cent compared to less than one percent on present home high quality
cone type speakers was needed because only 2.5 and 10 watt amplifiers were
available. These amplifiers used filamentary type vacuum tubes requiring
d.c. from batteries or motor generators for both filament and plate supplies.
The power amplifiers were of the 205-D type in single ended and push-pull
circuits. The recording amplifiers were of the type which were used so
successfully in the first 500 watt broadcast transmitters - studios and
public address equipment. The 8-A and 9-A amplifiers provided the amplification
from the 394-W condenser transmitter amplifier, which fed the recording
equipment. A speed of 90 feet per minute and 24 frames per second was chosen
for both the sound disc and the sound on film equipment which was released
in 1927. Accurate speed was possible due to the work of H.M. Stoller who
used a bridge balanced driving motor. Unbalance of the bridge provided
the necessary change of current which increased or decreased the motor
speed as required.
In January of 1927, Electrical Research Products, Inc., was formed as
a subsidiary of the Western Electric Company to handle commercial relations
with the motion picture producers and exhibitors. At this time, both disc
and film recording methods were made available. Again, Wente was responsible
for another important device, the light valve. This was a string valve
using two ribbons suspended in a plane at right angles to a magnetic field.
The ribbons were six mils thick and stretched to a resonant point of 8500
cps. A fixed source of incandescent light illuminated the opening between
the ribbons spaced one mil apart. Current from the recording amplifier
moved the ribbons from the normal spacing of one mil to either complete
closure of the slit or to double width of two mils as a maximum for 100
per cent modulation of the fixed source of light. This slit was focused
on the film by an optical system with a two-to-one reduction. This is the
variable density type of sound recording on film system.
In April of 1928 (six months after the showing of the "Jazz Singer"),
Paramount, United Artists, MGM, Universal, and others signed agreements
with Electrical Research Products, Inc. (ERPI), for licenses and recording
equipment. One can only imagine the intense activity resulting from these
contracts. Western Electric utilized all of its telephone plant manufacturing
facilities at Kearney, N.J., and the Hawthorne plant in Chicago to produce
the required 16 recording channels delivered in late 1928. What hectic days
these were! Sound stages were erected with Dr. Vern Knudsen of UCLA serving
as acoustical consultant. Sound directors, transmission engineers, and
recording staffs were recruited from the broadcast industry, the telephone
companies, phonograph recording companies, and any related field since
there were few sound experts, and none with talking picture experience.
An augmented staff of writers, composers, and stage actors were also assembled.
The training of staff kept pace with material developments. The Academy
of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, funded by the eight major producers,
gave night school instruction to 900, and this course resulted in the publication
in 1931 of the book, "Recording Sound for Motion Pictures," published
by McGraw Hill Company. I was privileged to be one of the authors.
Hollywood, the capital of the silent motion picture, now, in its reincarnation,
had a voice! Stars of the silent screen recorded their voices, and many
failed to qualify for the sound pictures. The success of outdoor pictures,
such as "Arizona," shook off the belief that a sound stage was
RCA Photophone, Inc., was organized in 1928 to promote its commercial
exploration of their sound-on-film system. The Photophone group was organized
from a three cornered arrangement between General Electric, Westinghouse,
and RCA. The Photophone system of recording used the variable area method.
The sound track is produced by actually moving a light beam of uniform
intensity back and forth lengthwise across a slit whose length and width
are fixed. The resulting sound track in its early form had the appearance
of a serrated or saw tooth edge of uniform density adjoining a uniform
transparent area. Otherwise, all sound recording and reproducing equipment
is essentially alike. By the end of 1929, ERPI and RCA had equipped more
than 5,000 theaters in the U.S. and 2,000 abroad. Warner Brothers continued
the Vitaphone method of sound on disc up to 1933, at which time they switched
to sound on film because of the obvious advantages of synchronization,
editing, and standardization with the other studios.
It was my good fortune to have been selected for this work from a group
trained in physics, engineering, acoustics, and broadcast experience. In
September of 1928, I arrived at United Artists Studios as transmission
engineer in charge of the recording operation. Dr. Vern Knudsen had designed
the sound stages which were nearing completion, and recording equipment
was arriving from the Western Electric Co. Everyone had more than their
share of work to do since our first talking picture, "Coquette,"
with Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, was to start in November. Both
disc and film equipment were installed in duplicate since at the time of
contract signing, it was thought both would be used. Actually, the disc
equipment was used for instant playback of the recording, and using the
soft wax for this purpose. The wax was processed into a pressed record
and used as a backup in case the film recording was not adequate. This
duplication was dropped after a few pictures since the use of two film
machines proved to supply adequate protection.
The experience of Western Electric did not involve a full feature length
film, including editing and release printing of the hundreds of prints
needed for simultaneous exhibition, so we were immediately faced with the
problem of creating "dubbing" facilities. This consisted of providing
a number of reproducing sound heads in a re-recording room where a number
of recorded films could be synchronized, including music and sound effects
along with the original dialogue. A new single negative was then available
for the final release. As many 16 separate sound tracks were used to composite
all of the individual Sound tracks. The filamentary type vacuum tubes had
many problems, and microphonics was the source of greatest agony. All amplifiers
near or on moving equipment had to be suspended on shock assemblies. Even
acoustic energy such as monitor loudspeakers or high room noise levels
were responsible for many retakes. In 1931, I had a conference with M.J.
Kelley at the Bell Laboratories to determine when heater typ tubes would
be available for recording equipment since they were appearing in radio
receivers. He provided information on a series of heater type tubes having
low noise, long life, and excellent stability.
In 1933, I transferred to MGM studios and began a systematic review
and redesign of all recording amplifiers. The existing amplifiers had been
in use from 1925 with little or no revision. We were concerned that the
phase shift between the lowest and highest frequencies was on the order
of 1500 degrees in the recording channel, which distorted speech and caused
a loss of articulation. A large number of transformers were used in the
recording circuit since the amplifiers were in many locations, and each
amplifier required an input and output transformer to work on low impedance
circuits varying from 30 to 600 ohms. Phase shift is reduced by using transformers
having very high self-inductance (5 H per 100 ohms of circuit impdance)
and relatively large coupling capacities with extremly low leakage and
distributed capacity. When used in recording amplifiers, transformers -
designed by E.B. Harrison and manufactured by Lansing Manufacturing Co.
- reduced the overall recording channel phase shift to less than 360 degrees
(in the recorded frequency range, the phase shift is directly proportional
When these redesigned recording amplifiers were placed in service, it
became very apparent thet speech, sound effects, and the attack on sounds
of musical instruments were greatly improved in fidelity. The techniques
were then applied by others to bring hi-fi amplifiers to the disc recording
and home music fields. At the same time, it became obvious that the maximum
benefit of improved recording quality must be matched with equal theater
reproducing equipment quality.
Cooperative Problem Solving
The Research Council of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences
was organized in 1934 to cooperatively handle technical problems for the
industry. A theater standardization committee was appointed for the express
purpose of coordinating the sound recording quality within the major studios
and provide information on adjustment of theater equipment for a commercially
acceptable quality level. Early in the program, a test reel was assembled
using a short length of a regular release print from each of the studios.
It was used to adjust all studio projection rooms for an optimum frequency
response characteristic when reproducing typical pictures of all studios.
This test reel proved to be so valuable in Hollywood that prints were made
available to service companies, equipment manufacturers, and theaters.
By this method, theater equipment was adjusted on a uniform quality basis
taking into consideration the acoustics of the auditorium and the loudspeaker
characteristics. Power requirements for theaters based on size was next
standardized. Finally, a bulletin on theater acoustics was issued indicating
the desireable acoustics for new theaters and the methods of modifying
Early in sound motion picture recording, the need for added artificial
reverberation became apparent. Time delay for echoes and added reverberation
to music was desirable, but such equipment was not avaliable. First attempts
included using several prints of sound tracks spaced one or more frames
apart and delayed from the original track. These were then mixed together
with results which fell short of the goal. Another attempt was using a
long pipe, 300 to 500 feet in length, driven by a loudspeaker on one end
and picked up on microphones at 100 feet intervals and added to the original
sound. This gave better results than the spaced tracks, but limited the
type of reverberation.
In 1934, the Hammond Electronic Organ had as an accessory a "reverberstat"
which supplied artificial reverberation to the organ notes. This unit was
composed of a series of coil springs of different lengths and diameters
driven by a loudspeaker and the opposite ends of the springs energized
the microphones. This was the first method which achieved a desirable added
reverberation to original sounds.
One of the early pictures using artificial reverberation was "In
May Time" with Jeanette McDonald. A long shot was used to establish
her far off entrance, and then the camera dollied in for a "close
up." We used various amounts of reverberation to match the varying
camera shots. At that time, it was customary for an actress or actor to
review all scenes and takes with the film editor and select the best "take."
However, they did not see the dubbing in its final form before release
to the theater. I went to Grauman's Chinese Theater on the opening day
of the performance as usual to adjust the volume by a control placed on
a seat near the center of the house. When this scene came on, Jeanette
for the first time heard the reverberation and realized that something
was changed. After the scene was over, she dashed to my seat and said,
"John Hilliard, what have you done to my picture?" Of course,
after the shock was over, she realized the improvement, and never again
was there any question about adding reverberation where it was needed.
Later, reverberation rooms were built consisting of special rooms with
little absorbtion so that reverberation periods of up to five seconds were
available. These rooms were energized by a loudspeaker and picked up by
one or more microphones. At a later date, drum, disc, and tape delays augmented
the supply of sources for artificial reverberation.
The need to record music with vocal selections became obvious at a very
early date in sound motion picture recording. Stage noise caused by the
hum of arc lights, cameras, ventilators, improper acoustics, placement
of orchestra, and many special handicaps forced the techniques of pre-scoring
all musical portions of the picture. This was done by placing the orchestra
and soloists in a stage designed specifically for music. (The noise levels
were below 35 dBA.) The orchestra was picked up by several microphones
to obtain the desired balance, and the solo and choral groups used separate
microphones. Up to 1935, only non-directional microphones and the RCA ribbon
mirophone were used. The soloists were isolated acoustically as much as
possible from the orchestra with panels (flats), but it was always necessary
to have the soloists hear the orchestra and face the musical director.
An MGM representative stationed in Berlin in 1935 informed the studio
in Culver City that Siemens Co. of Germany had developed a directional
microphone (cardioid pattern) so that the back side of the microphone materially
suppressed sound pickup. Thus, the soloist on the front side had full pick-up
and the back side suppressed the orchestra. A sample microphone was immediately
sent to Culver City and first used on "Naughty Marietta" with
Jeanette McDonald and Nelson Eddy. The Siemens microphone was considerably
larger than the condenser and dynamic microphones then in use. Since Jeanette
McDonald had a very weak voice compared to Nelson Eddy, balance was a big
problem. As a result, the directional microphone was first placed in front
of Jeanette McDonald. An immediate question from Nelson Eddy was why a
new microphone was being used for her. He was told that it had pronounced
directional properties so that she could be acoustically isolated for balanced
pick-up. Eddy then requested we use the same type microphone on him. We
explained that we only had one such unit. However, he preferred not to
record until we had a similar unit for him - an ultimatum. All major studios
have "prop shops" that can duplicate the physical appearances
of most objects. The results were evidenced when scoring started the next
morning. Two identical looking microphones were hung for the soloists;
one a Siemens and one looking like a Siemens but having a small dynamic
micropone inside. Everyone was happy, most of all the sound department
The rush to release sound motion pictures in 1928 did not allow for
a real analysis of naturalness. However, it was soon recognized that a
flat overall frequency response characteristic resulted in an unnatural
quality in speech. It was gradually recognized that voices were more natural
when the low frequencies were attenuated by suitable equalizers at the
time of original recording. They were called "dialogue equalizers"
(voice effort equalizers). The shape of the equalizers was arrived at empirically
for best natural sound. In later years, studies arrived at basic concepts
of why these equalizers provided a subjectively flat quality.
| The Fletcher Munson curves, shown in Fig.1, represent equal loudness contours
over the hearing range. Each of the curves represents the various sound
intensities required to produce a constant sensation of loudness for the
listener throughout the audible range. One of the first examples to be
recognized was that dialogue in the theater needs to be reproduced at a
level 5 to 10 dB higher than in face-to-face communication. The higher
level is required since the picture image is larger, the distance to the
listener is much greater, plus the background noise in the theater is high
due to audience and ventilator noise. The opposite is true on the recording
stage, where background noise is low and the performer talks at a lower
than average level.
Figure 2 shows the average voice characteristics of men and women. Normal
and soft-spoken dialogue has a high content of low frequencies as compared
to the loud voice where there is a large shift to higher output in the
500 to 700 cps region.
There was also a large variation in the amount of initial equalization
used. This resulted from the fact that in some studios the actors were
permitted to speak at a low volume while in other studios they were required
to use a loud voice because of the varying ambient background level. Figure
3 illustrates the minimum and maximum amount of attenuation in the dialogue
equalizers under the conditions discussed. The Maximum equalization is
similar to the A weighting networks in the sound level meter.
There was a decided difference in the amount of dialogue equalization
needed for outdoor scenes as compared to indoor scenes, similar to the
response of a loudspeaker outside and inside. Outdoor scenes required less
dialogue equalization because the sound is spreading uniformly in all directions.
The low frequencies are less directional and are, therefore, attenuated
more than the higher noise frequencies which have marked directional characteristics.
Indoors, reverberation builds up the low frequency response.
The editing of a film sound track for orchestra and voices became very
complex at the very beginning of sound pictures. Artists who were beautiful
on the screen in many cases were not capable of singing an entire number
without a flaw. This was overcome by making as many as 10 takes of a number.
Imperfect notes were then cut out of the sound tracks and a perfect note
inserted. Most musical sound film editors became so skillful in using this
technique that the audience was totally unaware that there may be as many
as 50 notes or bars inserted in a completed song.
The early sound recording equipment supplied to the studios by Western
Electric used heavy, large marine cable plugs and connectors for microphones
and motor drives. The early sound trucks assembled at the Kearny, N.J.,
plant were so heavy that when unloaded from the flat car they were immediately
tagged by the California highway department to reduce the weight. The marine
fittings and other non-essential hardware were replaced and this weight
reduction was sufficient to allow their highway use.
The early studio projection rooms had annunciator type buzzers, lights
and number displays for signals between the auditorium and projection room.
These were supplied by the designer, James Cannon, of Cannon Electric Co.
in LosAngeles. He was an ingenious person, and we asked him if he could
develop a cable connector for our microphones. He supplied a six-pin connector
which was the prototype of his famous P-type connector, and this met with
instant acceptance by all the studios. A small camera motor cable connector
was the next plug on that list, and from this time (1929) on, the Canon
plug was history.
The early theater and public address systems of Western Electric and
RCA proved to be inadequate in the larger theaters. In 1933 there were
more than 300 theaters in the USA with a seating capacity of between 3,000
and 5,000 people. The Fletcher Bell Lab stereo demonstration between Philadelphia
and Washington, D.C., gave positive proof that such a system was available
in a prototype. MGM, through Lowes Theaters, controlled 130 of the largest
theaters in the US and realized a commercial version of this system was
needed. The Electrical Research Products Inc. division of Western Electric
(called ERPI), responsible for recording and reproduction, was notified
in September of 1933 that MGM would give a contract for 150 systems as
soon as a prototype system could be demonstrated. In late 1934, MGM requested
a progress report and was told no action had been taken by ERPI. Douglas
Shearer, head of the sound department, had initiated the request and asked
me for an alternate soloution. I told him we had none except to design
and build our own system and seek outside manufacturers to cooperate in
the final design and supply. Shearer informed Louis B. Mayer of our decision,
who authorized any reasonable budget and gave us the go-ahead. He also
authorized the head of Lowes Theaters, through Lester Issacc, to cooperate
and provide us with theater surveys on size and configuration and recommended
several New York theaters for early experimental evaluation. The Capitol
Theater on Broadway was selected since it had 5,000 seats and represented
a most difficult installation.
Dr. John F. Blackburn of Cal. Tech. was a friend of mine and helped
seek sources. We contacted the Lansing Manufacturing Co. owned by Jim Lansing
and Jim Decker, who were engaged in production of a small loudspeaker for
console radios. The concept of using the multicell high frequency horn
and drivers designed by Wente along with 15 inch cone type low frequency
units in baffles or horns was outlined. Blackburn was hired by Lansing
to aid Jim Lansing with design of the 15 inch cone low frequency units
and work with MGM on the design of a high frequency driver midway between
the then existing Western Electric 555-W 1 inch throat with phasing plug
and the Wente 2 inch throat driver having concentric phasing rings. This
compromise was set at using a throat diameter of 1.4 inch and a 3 inch
diameter aluminum diaphragm with a tangential compliance. The Western Electric
Wente driver had a 4 inch aluminum diaphragm with an annular compliance
which proved to have poor power performance.
The Wente Bell Lab multicellular horn had a single configuration of
70° x 70° distribution pattern. We made a survey of the theaters
and determined we needed several sizes using an arrangement of single cells
each 17° x 17° with a 300 cps cutoff. These took The form oa a
2x4, 2x5, 2x6, 3x3, 3x4, and 3x5 cells to cover the various sizes of theaters.
We had learned from earlier multiple horn use that it was beneficial to
reduce both the number of horns and overlapping patterns to a minimum,
and hence our objective was to use one high frequency horn whenever possible.
Robert L. Stephens of MGM was given the task of laying out the geometry
and construction of the multisell horns and having the prototypes built
in our precision machine shop. (MGM had foundry casting facilities, precision
machine shops for camera and printer repair and a complete wood working
plant.) Harry Kimball was assigned the dividing network problem, and I
made preliminary designs of flat baffle and horn-loaded low frequency components.
At this point ERPI realized we had a viable program and provided us with
one of the Fletcher systems. It was at this time we had the experience
of learning that time delay and phasing were important considerations as
reported in the Eleanor Powell tap dance tests. Avter extensive time delay
tests, we determined that the physical delay between low and high frequency
sources should be less than one millisecond.
When the RCA Photophone Division was informed of our goal, Harry Olson
and John Volkman asked to participate by supplying versions of their loudspeaker
systems and expertise, which we gratefully accepted.
By 1935, we had selected a re-entrant low frequency horn suggested bu
Olsen, and it used four 15 inch Lansing cone speakers and Lansing 284 driver
units for the multicell horns. The MGM Shearer type two way theater sound
system had arrived. Doug Shearer and I supervised the installation of 12
systems in various cities for the opening of "Romeo and Juliet"
featuring Norma Shearer, Doug's sister. These systems were built in the
MGM studios. After completion of the installation, RCA and ERPI each were
given contracts to supply 75 systems for the Lowes Theater Circuit. Other
theater chains followed with orders, and the Academy of Motion Picture
Arts and Sciences theater standardization research council was formed.
I was made chairman. All studios participated, and we specified the minimum
power requirements, theater acoustic recommendations, and a standard electrical
characteristic since ERPI, RCA, and Lansing were supplying their versions
of the two-way system for theater use.
Divide and Merge
In 1938, a consent degree removed Western Electric (ERPI) from manufacturing
and selling theater sound equipment and having service contracts for theater
equipment. In December, 1938 this part of ERPI was sold to an ERPI employee
organization approved by Western Electric. The new company was organized
by M. Conroe and G. Carrington who had managed the ERPI theater division.
The name selected was Altec Service Corp. (derived from all technical).
They aquired all the equipment, contracts, and personell who wished to
transfer from ERPI to Altec.
By 1941, the Western Electric inventory aquired in the take over was
becoming exhausted, and George Carrington asked for a recommendation for
equipment sources. I suggested Altec buy Lansing which was done, and Altec
Lansing Corp. was formed in May 1941. In the interval between 1938 and
1941, Bob Stephens had resigned from MGM and formed the Stephens Manufacturing
Co. where he developed a line of home system loudspeakers in competetion
with the Lansing Manufacturing Co.
Ercell Harrison at Lansing in 1937 developed a line of transformers
under contract to MGM to rebuild the entire MGM recording plant. These
transformers were soon known as the 20-20 line (20 cps - 20,000 cps). They
had overall characteristics superior to any commercial transformer line
available in the U.S. They also became part of the amplifier used in the
Lansing Iconic (Greek for likeness), a small two-way monitor system used
as the standard loudspeaker in many labs such as CBS, NBC, Dr. Knudsen's
lab at U.C.L.A., and as phonograph recording monitors. I left MGM in 1942
to work at the MIT Radiator Laboratory. In 1943, George Carrington arranged
with MIT that I work at Altec Lansing on a magnetic airborne submarine
device for which Altec Lansing had received a contract to develop. In 1945,
we had ready the new two-way system called the "Voice of the Theater"
which included improved horns and permanent magnet drivers.
Around 1949, Jim Lansing began to have serious differences with Altec
Lansing management and finally resigned. He formed a company in Santa Monica
and manufactured loudspeakers, but financial troubles overtook him and
the Marquardt Co. in Van Nuys supplied funds. However, he had problems
there, and Bill Thomas came in and worked with him. Jim Lansing was a despondent
person during these difficult times and retired to his avocado ranch in
Escondido. Here, he twice attempted suicide, and on the third try, succeeded.
His original partner, Jim Decker, was killed in an aircraft accident earlier.
After the death of Jim Lansing, Bill Thomas became president of the now
J.B. Lansing Sound Inc. Bob Stephens died in 1953, Douglas Shearer died
in 1969, and I am left to tell the tale of how this group was instrumental
in formulating the early works of quality sound reinforcement, theater
systems, and Hi-Fi home music.
| A little more about Jim Lansing (James
Note: I have used the term "cycles per second (cps)" because
in the time period of this article, this was standard terminology. The
Hertz "HZ" is named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz,
who made important scientific contributions to electromagnetism. The name
was adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in
1960, replacing the previous name for the unit, cycles per second (cps),
along with its related multiples, primarily kilocycles per second (kc/s)
and megacycles per second (Mc/s), and occasionally kilomegacycles per second
(kMc/s). The term cycles per second was largely replaced by hertz by the